High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Parts cleaning is essential to many industrial processes, as a prelude to surface finishing or to protect sensitive components. Electroplating is particularly sensitive to part cleanliness, since molecular layers of oil can prevent adhesion of the coating. ASTM B322 is a standard guide for cleaning metals prior to electroplating. Cleaning processes include solvent cleaning, hot alkaline detergent cleaning, electrocleaning, and acid etch. The most common industrial test for cleanliness is the waterbreak test, in which the surface is thoroughly rinsed and held vertical. Hydrophobic contaminants such as oils cause the water to bead and break up, allowing the water to drain rapidly. Perfectly clean metal surfaces are hydrophilic and will retain an unbroken sheet of water that does not bead up or drain off.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Tegal Corporation is a company in the semiconductor industry that manufactures plasma etch and deposition systems. Tegal was originally founded in 1972 by Ted Gallagher, hence its name. The company was acquired by Motorola in 1978 and sold some years later. Tegal has since went for IPO and is currently traded on NASDAQ under the ticker symbol TGAL. Michael Parodi was Chairman and CEO of Tegal for nearly a decade. "Tegal Corporation designs, manufactures, markets and services plasma etch and deposition systems that enable the production of IC memory and related microelectronics devices used in personal computers, wireless voice and data telecommunications, radio frequency identification devices (RFID), smart cards, data storage and nano-scale actuators. Etching and deposition constitute two of the principal IC and related device production process steps and each must be performed numerous times in the production of such devices.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Tobacco etch virus (TEV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae.TEV contains a highly site-specific protease, commonly called TEV protease. Biochemists have used this to their advantage, to create a protein purification system by incorporating TEV protease's recognition site into protein purification tags. A gene construct is created containing the protein of interest fused to a TEV protease recognition site, followed by an affinity tag, such as a Polyhistidine-tag. Following affinity chromatography, the purified protein is then treated with TEV protease. TEV protease cleaves at its recognition site, removing the affinity tag. This allows for affinity purification of proteins that are not well-behaved when fused to protein tags.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Photogravure registers a wide variety of tones, through the transfer of etching ink from an etched copper plate to special dampened paper run through an etching press. The unique tonal range comes from photogravure''s variable depth of etch, that is, the shadows are etched many times deeper than the highlights. Unlike half-tone processes which merely vary the size of dots, the actual quantity and depth of ink wells are varied in a photogravure plate and are often blended into a smooth tone by the printing process. Photogravure practitioners such as Peter Henry Emerson and others brought the art to a high standard in the late 19th century. This continued with the work of Alfred Stieglitz in the early 20th century, especially in relation to his publication Camera Work. This publication also featured the photogravures of Alvin Langdon Coburn who was a fine gravure printer and envisioned his photographic work as gravures rather than other photo-based processes.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Roedy Green (born Munroe Frederic Compton Green on February 4, 1948) is a Canadian programmer, independent computer consultant, and activist. He is well-known on the Internet for his Java & Internet Glossary, and his popular essay How to Write Unmaintainable Code. Roedy began his programming career in 1963 (at the then unheard-of age of 15), writing Fortran timetable scheduling software for the West Vancouver Secondary School. In August 1969, he came out as gay. In 1971, based on his experiences, he self-published the booklet "A Guide For The Naive Homosexual" (also known as "the blurb"), and became involved in the founding of the Gay Alliance Toward Equality (GATE), later serving as its second chairman (August 1971 to July 1972). In 1979, he worked with John C. Lilly on Project JANUS, writing hardware interface software and a dolphin-controlled Etch-A-Sketch. Later, as part of volunteer work for The Hunger Project, he created the programming language Abundance.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The Ueda Domain was a Japanese domain of the Edo period, located in Shinano Province (modern-day Ueda, Nagano). Shinano Province is an old province of Japan that is now present day Nagano Prefecture. Its abbreviation is Shinsh . Shinano bordered on Echigo, Etch , Hida, Kai, K zuke, Mikawa, Mino, Musashi, Suruga, and T t mi Provinces. The ancient capital was located near modern-day Matsumoto, which became an important city of the province. The World War II era Japanese aircraft carrier Shinano was named after this old province.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Piranha solution, also known as piranha etch, is a mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), used to clean organic residues off substrates. Because the mixture is a strong oxidizer, it will remove most organic matter, and it will also hydroxylate most surfaces (add OH groups), making them extremely hydrophilic (water compatible). Piranha solution is used frequently in the microelectronics industry, e.g. to clean photoresist residue from silicon wafers. It is sometimes used to clean laboratory glassware, though it is discouraged in many institutions and it should not be used routinely due to its dangers. Unlike chromic acid solutions, piranha will not contaminate glassware with heavy metal ions.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Reactive ion etching (RIE) is an etching technology used in microfabrication. It uses chemically reactive plasma to remove material deposited on wafers. The plasma is generated under low pressure (vacuum) by an electromagnetic field. High-energy ions from the plasma attack the wafer surface and react with it. A typical (parallel plate) RIE system consists of a cylindrical vacuum chamber, with a wafer platter situated in the bottom portion of the chamber. The wafer platter is electrically isolated from the rest of the chamber, which is usually grounded. Gas enters through small inlets in the top of the chamber, and exits to the vacuum pump system through the bottom. The types and amount of gas used vary depending upon the etch process, for instance, sulfur hexafluoride is commonly used for etching silicon. Gas pressure is typically maintained in a range between a few millitorr and a few hundred millitorr by adjusting gas flow rates and/or adjusting an exhaust orifice.